dictionary methods. Instead of animals, you could have colors: 48. words = 'red orange yellow green blue indigo violet white black brown'      .split(), 48. words = 'square triangle rectangle circle ellipse rhombus trapezoid      chevron pentagon hexagon septagon octagon'.split(), 48. words = 'apple orange lemon lime pear watermelon grape grapefruit cherry      banana cantaloupe mango strawberry tomato'.split(). To see the difference, enter this into the interactive shell: >>> listFavs1 = ['apples', 'cats', 42]>>> listFavs2 = ['cats', 42, 'apples']>>> listFavs1 == listFavs2False. will know if the secret word is an animal, color, shape, or fruit. Change the getRandomWord() function so that its parameter complicated, but it is just an expression you can evaluate one step at a time Is automated and digitized ballot processing inherently more dangerous than manual pencil and paper? Hangman is a guessing game in which the objective of the player is to find out the hidden word. Now that you’ve created a ', 4:'bacon', 'eggs':9999 }. basic Hangman game, let’s look at some ways you can extend it with new But instead of accessing the items in the dictionary with an integer index, you can access them with an index of any data type. So who are not familiar with the game name ( Hangman) now they can easily understand. But instead of accessing the items in the dictionary with an integer where, i in itself is serving no purpose. We’re done with Hangman. the following into the interactive shell: >>> # This function returns a random string from the passed list of          strings.42. By deleting strings from this list, you can reduce the number of guesses and make the game harder. and dictionaries. the dictionary. The rest of the program works with the new HANGMAN_PICS list just fine. We’re done with Hangman. Piano: When you change hand position, how do you coordinate finger with note on paper? 'orange', 'lemon', 'lime', 'pear', 'watermelon', 'grape', 'grapefruit', variable, the second item's value to the second variable, and so on. +---+39. secretWord, secretKey = getRandomWord(words), 145. multiple assignment. Meanwhile, lists are ordered, so two lists with the same values in a different order are not equal to each other. The choice() function in the random module takes a list argument and returns a random value from it. First, imagine that wordKey has the value 'Fruits' and wordIndex has the value 5. To see how the choice() function works, enter the following into the interactive shell: >>> import random>>> random.choice(['cat', 'dog', 'mouse'])'mouse'>>> random.choice(['cat', 'dog', 'mouse'])'cat'. into the interactive shell: Dictionaries have two useful methods, keys() and values(). assignment operator as there are items in the list on the right side. Every incorrect guess leads to the decrement of the chances left for the player. Using Dictionaries of Words in Hangman Let’s change the code in the new Hangman game to support different sets of secret words. same values in a different order are not equal to each other. 61. # This function returns a random string from the passed Save your hangman.py program as hangman2.py. Change the code in this function so that it looks like this: 65. index, you can access them with an index of any data type. What am I exactly lacking for making a good Guitar Solo? {'hello':'Hello there, how are you? ===''', '''38. 69. Change the getRandomWord() function so that its parameter will be a dictionary of lists of strings, instead of just a list of strings. Meanwhile, lists are ordered, so two lists with the 60. calling random.choice(). Create a Hangman Game in Python. ', 4:'bacon', 'eggs':9999}>>> spam['hello']'Hello there, how are you? With some modification, you can change the code so that the The later programs in this book will still be a challenge to Here is how wordDict[wordKey][wordIndex] would evaluate: ['apple', secretWord, secretKey = getRandomWord(words), Printing the Word Category for lists of strings. For dictionaries, You can type del animals[1] again and again to keep deleting items from the list: >>> animals = ['aardvark', 'anteater', 'antelope', 'albert']>>> del animals[1]>>> animals['aardvark', 'antelope', 'albert']>>> del animals[1]>>> animals['aardvark', 'albert']>>> del animals[1]>>> animals['aardvark']. With newer python versions, you can make use of type hinting to give a brief overview of the type of variables and function parameters. program can tell the player which set (animal, color, shape, or fruit) the then add the following instructions: There are two new multi-line strings to the HANGMANPICS list, one Why do SSL certificates have country codes (or other metadata)? ', 4:'bacon', 'eggs':9999}, stuff = {'hello':'Hello there, how are you? Now you’re done with the changes to the Hangman program. Why? yellow green blue indigo violet white black brown'.split(), 59. words = 'square Try entering the following into the interactive shell: >>> spam = The first item in a list named listStuff would be listStuff[0]. wordIndex = random.randint(0, len(wordDict[wordKey]) - 1), 72.     return After you’ve played Hangman a few times, you might think that six guesses isn’t enough for the player to get many of the words. 'Animals':'bat bear beaver cat cougar crab deer dog donkey duck eagle      fish frog goat leech lion lizard monkey moose mouse otter owl panda      python rabbit rat shark sheep skunk squid tiger turkey turtle weasel      whale wolf wombat zebra'.split()}. dictionary of lists of strings, and the key also. The string method split() will return a list of strings with one word each. Let’s change the code in the new Hangman game to support different sets of secret words. You can get the number of key-value pairs in the dictionary with This is explained next. The program also tells the player which set of words the to be more descriptive. print('The secret word is in the set: ' + secretKey), 114.     mango strawberry tomato'.split(). One difference between dictionaries and lists is that dictionaries can have keys of any data type, as you’ve seen. The code works fine, I get around 1670 right + wrong attempts to guess the letters. shell: >>> spam The comments don't really help here. any sort of order. This is similar to what the previous getRandomWord() function did. The wordDict[wordKey][wordIndex] expression on line 61 may look complicated, but it’s just an expression you can evaluate one step at a time like anything else. give you an error. I wrote a program that read a csv file that contain 100 rows that look like: then try to guess the letters like in a hangman game. 'Shapes':'square triangle rectangle circle ellipse rhombus trapezoid chevron sets of secret words. ', 4:'bacon', 'eggs':9999}. the right. Save your hangman.py program as hangman2.py, displayBoard(HANGMANPICS, missedLetters, correctLetters, secretWord). list argument and returns a random value from it. What would be the hazard of raising flaps on the ground? function returns a list with two items. the dictionary: 70.     Python provides an inbuilt collections.Counter for you to make use of. # Second, randomly select a word from the key's list in the          dictionary:59.     wordIndex = random.randint(0, len(wordDict[wordKey]) - 1)60.61.     return [wordDict[wordKey][wordIndex], wordKey]. The keys() To try it out, enter the following into the interactive shell: >>> animals = ['aardvark', 'anteater', 'antelope', 'albert']>>> del animals[1]>>> animals['aardvark', 'antelope', 'albert']. will automatically assign the first item's value in the list to the first Python will automatically assign the value of the first item in the list to the first variable, the second item’s value to the second variable, and so on. >>> a, while difficulty not in ['E', 'M', 'H']:107.     print('Enter difficulty: E - Easy, M - Medium, H - Hard')108.     difficulty = input().upper()109. if difficulty == 'M':110.     del HANGMAN_PICS[8]111.     del HANGMAN_PICS[7]112. if difficulty == 'H':113.     del HANGMAN_PICS[8]114.     del HANGMAN_PICS[7]115.     del HANGMAN_PICS[5]116.     del HANGMAN_PICS[3]117.118. missedLetters = ''.

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